Base scales

The infinite base scales


The comprehension of multiple lessons in a short time period may be very demanding, what’s more stressful, for my students, especially when I’m trying to introduce thus explain completely new definitions never heard before.


But now I can guarantee that once you comprehend, you’ll feel entirely comfortable with your knowledge!



As a matter of fact, basic scales are part of an infinite scale consisting of three-note groups, in other words trichords.


Fitting these parts together you can get a giant, infinite scale structure.


You need the following tools to do this:

  • OSIRE software, as the tool for quick modeling

  • a combiniation of Mirror Images demonstrating a 84-string (!) guitar neck with all fourth tuning.

Here are the three types of trichords, with the combination of which all seven basic scales can be produced:


Major trichord


Minor trichord


Phrygian trichord


The infinite scale can be started from any desired note on the fretboard. However, it’s worth starting the scale from the lowest note so that all notes even at the higher can be visualized on the fretboard. The mirror image below suggests a scale start with a major scale, on the upmost string. The scale carries on to the next string downwards, pitch wise upwards.


Please note: the starting note, say it’s a C, is not relevant at all as the scale structure remains the same regardless of you start it from whichever note.

(Bear in mind that the string thicknesses are not relevant here)



Virtually, 11 strings are enough to fully visualize the structure of the seven basic scales.



The order of the basic scales from upwards to downwards (repetitions highlighted)


1. Major

2. Lydian

3. Locrian

4. Phrygian

5. Minor

6. Dorian

7. Mixolydian

8. Major

9. Lydian

10. Locrian

11. Phrygian

12. Minor

13. Dorian

14. Mixolydian

15. etc.


The key characteristic of this giant scale structure is that a there is always an interval of a fourth between each strings, which makes all seven fourth intervals to appear as a vertical line on the mirror image fretboard, as per the below figure.



Practically, the giant scale structure can only be formed using this small scale fragment. Besides, there is another systematic piece of structure here, which consists of six augmented fourths, making it look like it’s stretching ahead angularly. What’s more, it seems to bear all the scales, since all scales figuratively adhere to it from either upwards of downwards. I would call it an ‘adhesive tape’.



That’s amazing! It’s something you just wouldn’t know without Pénzes Methodology.


There are also certain groups of fourths connecting to these ‘adhesive tapes’ in a systematic way, six of them to each, following each other in the sequence below:

(the arrows indicate the orientation of each fourth-group)



↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓



There is obviously a question here as to how this infinite scale structure would be affected if the interval between strings G and B were not a fourth but a high third (as standard tuning). As a matter of fact, the interval between a high third and a fourth only takes a half-note. This interval would shift the scale a half-note rightwards on the corresponding string and consequently on the subsequent strings, meaning that on 6-string guitar only B and E1 strings would be affected. Here is the figure illustrating the difference between all-fourth tuning and standard tuning:



If we compare the above figure with the major scale, it is out of question we are talking about the same scale,...



...which proves that the infinite scale structure actually shows the original basic scale structures.



For those who fancy learning what an infinite basic scale structure looks like, take a good look at the picture below: - Base scales - The infinite base scales